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By using the difference in the volatility of the components in the liquid mixture, the liquid mixture is partially vaporized and the vapor is partially condensed, so as to achieve the separation of the components it contains. It is a unit operation that belongs to mass transfer separation. Widely used in oil refining, chemical, light industry and other fields.
Distillation Purification Technology
The principle of Distillation Technology takes the separation of a two-component mixture as an example. The material liquid is heated to make it partially vaporized, and the volatile components are concentrated in the vapor, and the non-volatile components are also concentrated in the remaining liquid, which achieves the separation of the two components to a certain extent. The greater the difference in volatility of the two components, the greater the degree of enrichment described above. In industrial distillation equipment, a partially vaporized liquid phase is brought into direct contact with a partially condensed gas phase to perform vapor-liquid interstitial mass transfer. As a result, the hardly volatile components in the gas phase are partially transferred to the liquid phase. The volatile components are partially transferred to the gas phase, that is, partial vaporization of the liquid phase and partial condensation of the vapor phase are achieved at the same time.
Liquid molecules tend to spill from the surface due to molecular motion. This tendency increases with increasing temperature. If the liquid is placed in a closed vacuum system, the liquid molecules continue to overflow and form a vapor on the upper surface of the liquid. Finally, the speed at which the molecules escape from the liquid is equal to the speed at which the molecules return from the vapor to the liquid, and the vapor remains constant. pressure. At this time, the vapor on the liquid surface reaches saturation, called saturated vapor, and the pressure it exerts on the liquid surface is called saturated vapor pressure. Experiments have shown that the saturated vapor pressure of a liquid is only related to temperature, that is, the liquid has a certain vapor pressure at a certain temperature. This is the pressure at which a liquid is in equilibrium with its vapor, and is independent of the absolute amount of liquid and vapor in the system.
Heating a liquid to a boil, turning the liquid into a vapor, and then cooling the vapor and condensing the liquid into a liquid, the combined operation of the two processes is called distillation. Obviously, distillation can separate volatile and non-volatile materials, as well as liquid mixtures with different boiling points. However, the boiling points of the components of the liquid mixture must be very different (at least above 30 ° C) to obtain better separation results. When distillation under normal pressure, the atmospheric pressure is often not exactly 0.1 MPa, so strictly speaking, the correction value should be added to the observed boiling point, but the deviation is generally small, even if the atmospheric pressure differs by 2.7KPa, this correction value It is only about ± 1 ° C, so it can be ignored.
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